You can write out what you want to say before you go to court. This may take a couple of days or a couple of weeks. A magistrate is usually a judicial officer who is appointed by the elected or presiding … 3. I had no idea that higher level judges here in the US got to appoint magistrates to a county court. Pictures help reduce a lot of uncertainty. Is Amazon actually giving you the best price? A Clerk’s Magistrate Hearing, also known as a Show Cause Hearing, is an incredible opportunity for you to prevent a criminal case from appearing on your criminal record (CORI). You will know that you have been sued in Magistrate’s Court when you receive a document called a Complaint. U.S. federal magistrates are appointed to serve a term of four or eight years. 4. Here are some examples of cases that might be filed in Magistrate Court: a landlord who doesn’t property return a security deposit; a neighbor who broke your window and won’t fix it; or a problem with a store that sold you a bad product and won’t replace it. The court will report the failure to appear to MVD and direct that your license be suspended and remain suspended until the civil penalty is paid in full. I feel like in almost every science fiction series I've watched, if the main characters encounter a criminal court hearing in an alien judicial system, it's run by a "magistrate." We have a history of over 20 years in the Scottsdale City Court and can assist you with any questions you may have. A magistrate is usually a judicial officer who is appointed by the elected or presiding judges. Magistrate Courts also have jurisdiction over evictions, garnishments, abandoned vehicles, … I'm writing a paper on Magistrate Judges and their impact on the judicial system. Getting legal advice. Get the best advice on how to pass the magistrate interview. Usually they refer to the person who proceeding over the hearing as a judge, but maybe it was really done by a magistrate. My ex partner was charged with assault by beating in June. A Complaint is a short written statement filed by the person suing you. In most cases there are other types of evidence that can also be used: Keep your records organized and use only the ones that are really important. For example, a picture from a birthday party that shows the hole in the wall. Magistrate Courts have authority over tort and contract claims to a jurisdictional limit of $15,000.00. Less serious offences, known as 'summary offences', are dealt with there, whereas more serious cases ('indictable offences') have their preliminary hearings before being passed to the crown court.When everyone is present in the courtroom, the prosecution will outline the details of the case. If you have to go to court, there are people and services available to help you. What to expect at the Magistrates Court. From the I-10, you will want to Exit 83 rd Ave and head south until you reach Van Buren. The Court and the Players. Within both the federal and state courts in the United States, magistrate court hearings are typically reserved for preliminary matters in both civil and criminal cases. During this process, you’ll meet a judge and members of both the prosecution and the defense counsel. Dependency Court Process A dependency is an assertion by the state or a third party that a parent is unfit or unable to care for their child or children. The Magistrates' Court is the first level of Victoria's court system. If they are of the opinion that the facts on the prosecution case suggest that the sentence if convicted should warrant more than their sentencing powers they will send the case to the Crown Court. It also goes to show that just because you are an appointed official does not mean that you are not being influenced by those of higher authority. In the United States federal court system, for example, magistrates are appointed by the life-term judges, who are appointed by the President of the United States. This is your first day in court, which you must not miss. DM Cantor are experienced defense lawyers in Scottsdale. All your witnesses MUST BE PRESENT TO TESTIFY AT THE HEARING. You can ask the court for the value of your used coffee table. The hearing is held in a small courtroom usually set up with an elevated bench for the judge and two tables in front for the plaintiff, defendant, and their attorneys. Be sure to put your phone on silent. If you do not get a notice of the hearing date within six weeks after you file your case, check back with the Magistrate Clerk’s office to see if the papers were delivered to the defendant. All criminal cases heard in the UK start in a magistrates' court. Box) where the papers can be delivered! A traffic citation may be minor, or it may be a criminal charge, but regardless, you will need to know what to expect in your hearing and … In accordance with Ohio law, the Mayor has appointed an attorney and/or a former judge as Magistrate to hear and determine prosecutions and criminal causes that come before the court and that are within the jurisdiction of the mayor’s court, as set forth in section 1905.01 of the Ohio Revised Code. I actually think this is kind of a bad idea. A hearing held in front of a magistrate, therefore, has the same force and effect as a hearing in front of a judge. See our information on Scottsdale City Court including hours, address, phone, and directions to the court. They will then call on any witnesses they have to give testim… Amazon Doesn't Want You to Know About This Plugin. If reasonable cause exists to believe the person is, as a result of a mental disorder, a danger to self or to others, is persistently and … I suppose by giving judges the power to do that, we let them ensure there will be other serving that share their opinions. They may also consider cases where people have not paid their counci… First, the judge will ask everyone's name and who they are (plaintiff, defendant, or witness). Remember, if your address changes during the court case you need to tell the Clerk in writing so that you receive all notifications from the court. Fill in your name and address. Find support. Going to Magistrate Court: How to file your own civil case. It is up to you to prove what the defendant did and why it was wrong. In these countries, the main difference between a magistrate and a judge is that the magistrate is appointed and serves at the direction of the formally elected or appointed judges within the court system. A $20.00 time payment fee and a $30.00 default fee will be added to the total due. In that capacity, magistrate court hearings will typically include setting bail, signing warrants, and presiding over preliminary hearings in civil or criminal cases. Insider tips and advice on how to successfully pass the first and second interviews of the Selection Process. In Mexico, for example, a magistrate is actually the term used for the judges who reside in the highest courts below the Supreme Court in the country. I've had friends that have gone to small claims court and for traffic citations. I have to say, magistrate seems to be a popular term on television. Become a magistrate in 2021 and Pass the Magistrate interview with this workbook. If a witness needs a subpoena, go to the Magistrate Clerk's office at least 10 days before the hearing and request a subpoena. The function of a magistrate differs throughout the world. Court staff and the magistrate can only advise you on correct court procedure. Assuming your jury assembly goes forward, an officer of the court (usually a bailiff) will divide selected persons into groups, assign numbers and send everyone off for further selection. A year later a water leak in your apartment damages it. Hearings held in magistrate court in Mexico are actually reviews of lower court rulings. Due to COVID-19, courts may require face coverings for all meetings or hearings. This isn’t the price if the item was new. If you cannot get them printed, take your phone and ask if you can show the photos from there. For guidance about your situation, talk to a lawyer. They still make rulings and participate in the judicial system. If you have relevant witnesses, bring them to the hearing. Not the value of the new coffee table. 2. Good morning folks. The instructions for the form are here.This is an Order that you win because the other side failed to respond to your Complaint. Take your phone and hard copies if possible. I reported so he would understand that this would not be happening again. You don’t have to do this, but you can if you want to. The Sheriff’s Office will deliver your Complaint to the defendant. A copy of the papers will be served upon the other side. It's also possible the magistrates could have their rulings unduly influenced by their appointing judge. A magistrate's ruling is binding on the parties. The Clerk will review your information and tell you if you have to pay the fee. Sometimes the Magistrate will make a decision right there at the hearing. You or your lawye… Over 95 per cent of all criminal cases are dealt with in the magistrates’ court.Magistrates hear less serious criminal cases including motoring offences, commit to higher courts serious cases such as rape and murder, consider bail applications, deal with fine enforcement and grant search warrant and right of entry applications. Once the defendant receives the papers the law allows him time to file a response, called an Answer. You will receive a notice to appear for a clerk’s hearing if you were not arrested and brought in for arraignment. If you have an upcoming court hearing, you can expect a judge or magistrate and the opposing party to be there. The court reviews the petition for court ordered evaluation filed by the examiner, the supporting application for court ordered evaluation and application for emergency admission or prescreen report. I have had the pleasure of leading this improvement in our Magistrate Court for the past five months and look forward to continuing … You may see some people bow to the judge or magistrate when they walk in or out of the hearing room. The person who filed the suit is called a Plaintiff. You may believe something is “ruined,” while the other side says it is “only scratched.” A clear picture lets the Court see the real condition. Turn it off or put it on silent. I have to admit, I've actually never heard the term magistrate used at all here in the US. Never let your phone interrupt the hearing. Preparing yourself before your hearing date can help with your court experience. Knowing What to Expect in Your Magistrate Hearing Can Help You Win Fighting a speeding ticket in Massachusetts is something you need to prepare for in order to be successful. 5. Magistrates may preside over motion hearings or pretrial hearings in civil matters. You will need to fill this out with information about your income, bills, debts/expenses, and property. Judges are elected, so why should magistrates be appointed? The Court handles cases that range from minor traffic violations to Class 1 misdemeanors carrying a maximum penalty of six months in jail and a $2,500 fine. You should use pictures, video, letters, and witnesses to prove your side of the story. The magistrate stands and reads out the charges against you. Act quickly! In Magistrate Court and Circuit Court, the public are generally allowed to be present during the hearing. Second, the judge will ask the plaintiff to briefly state his or her case. There are two things you must prove in Court: 2. If you run out of time, you can ask to give your written statement to the Magistrate. The depositions clerk calls you and then calls ‘all rise’ as the magistrate enters and sits at the bench. If you disagree with the Magistrate's decision, you can appeal to Circuit Court. You will need to conduct yourself with courtroom etiquette. The Court does not want to watch you shuffle through a big pile of papers hunting for something. For simple offences: 5.1. If you cannot afford the court filing fee, ask the Magistrate Clerk for a “Fee Waiver Form.” You can also find the Fee Waiver Form online. In addition to the judge, there may be court staff in all of the hearings, helping to keep track of information or record what happens at the hearing. Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. Speak to a Legal Aid officer if you need legal advice. The procedure in magistrate court in SC can vary somewhat from county to county and court to court, but there are enough similarities across the state that you can know what to expect if you have been arrested and charged in the magistrate court or if you have received a traffic ticket in the magistrate court. Use short sentences, no fancy legal words are necessary. Tips for Both Parties The damage you suffered because of what the defendant did: The court can only give you the “fair market value” of the item on the day before it was damaged. You should also wait for your case to be called; if you must leave, let court staff know. The form can be found online. People with lawyers will be dealt with first. You must prove the money value of the damage done. In West Virginia, magistrate courts hear civil cases when the amount in dispute is less than $10,000.The court also hears minor criminal cases like misdemeanor cases, and conducts preliminary examinations in felony cases. You have to present evidence to prove exactly what the property was worth, or exactly how much money was lost on the deal. Deadlines to appeal can be very short. Leases, contracts, and written agreements; Checking account records or cancelled checks to show when the check was cashed; Letters, text messages, emails, and any other communication between you and the other side. Remember, if your address changes during the court case you need to tell the Clerk in writing so that you receive all notifications from the court. Clerk-magistrates in District Court also serve as judicial hearing officers on procedural criminal … After the defendant files his Answer, the Magistrate Court will schedule a date and time for a trial and send written notification to each side. I'm testifying in court tomorrow. A receipt can help the court figure out how much less it’s worth now. Court can be stressful. The other side has to have the opportunity to question the witness and a written statement cannot be questioned. Write what you want the Court to do. Do not make strict commitments because your matter may not be dealt with as quickly as you think. Think about what you could have sold it for at a yard sale, through the ad bulletin, or online. You can also find the Civil Complaint online. We are constantly working on new processes and programs to provide court users with fair and accessible justice services. In that capacity, magistrate court hearings will typically include setting bail, signing warrants, and presiding over preliminary hearings in civil or criminal cases. Go to the Magistrate Clerk’s office in the county where your problem is located and ask for a Civil Complaint. Before giving evidence they are required to take an oath or make an affirmation to tell the truth. Each case is different and our team of lawyers will guide you through every step of the case, … The Magistrates’ Court has the power to deal with two categories of offences: Receipts proving what you paid are useful evidence. If the papers were delivered, but the defendant has not filed an Answer within 30 days, you can ask the Magistrate Clerk for a form to request a “default judgment” in your favor. For example, suppose you paid $100 for a new coffee table. Following charge by police, or receipt of a postal summons or written requisition, it is important to contact us as soon as possible so that we can begin preparing your case at an early stage. The Court adjudicates all criminal misdemeanors, code violations, traffic violations, and certain juvenile offenses that occurred within the Town’s limits. Our mission is to provide a professional and dignified forum for the resolution of legal disputes. The Tolleson City Court building is located at 8350 W Van Buren, in Tolleson, Arizona. We recommend taking one with you so you are not turned away. It is not enough to just say something is true – you must show the Court EVIDENCE to prove it. This is your chance to tell your story, so be complete. About us. Other times, the Magistrate may take some time before mailing out a decision in writing. Write a brief statement of why you think the defendant owes you money. The magistrates asks you how you plead—guilty or not guilty. What I found, was an agency that needed to update its policies and protocol to meet its obligations to serve the citizens. Bring receipts to show what you spent; or estimates to show how much repairs will cost; or some other evidence or testimony to convince the Court. Once you come up to Van Buren, head west and the courthouse is on the north side of the street. Magistrate Court also handles evictions and emergency protective orders. You will need the exact name and physical address (not a P.O. Petition for Appeals forms can be found here. It's interesting that the very same term can mean something completely different in different judicial system. This also isn’t the price of buying a new one. “A picture is worth a thousand words.” Use pictures that show the details. The most common function of a magistrate, however, is to act as a judge in lower level courts. It is not enough to say it is broken or you lost money. You will need to attach a pay stub, proof of Social Security or DHHR benefits (including food stamps), or another financial document that verifies your income. @KaBoom - It's very possible that your friends may have dealt with a magistrate and not a judge. This lets me know that while there is a system in place for the mj's, they really have very to little authority in decision making which should be their moral right because of their title and oath to uphold the law. It will cost about $1 for each 8x11 full page print, but it is worth it. Any photos that are stored on your phone need to be printed out. Either you or your defence lawyer stands and responds. If your case goes to trial at Magistrates Court, you can expect the trial to start with the prosecution summarising the case against you. Helpful general information and advice for attending court can be found here - What to say and do. I think that's actually where I've heard the term used the most! This is general legal information. Depending on the type of case, this can be as long as 30 days from the time the defendant receives the papers. What to expect. Matters are determined by a judicial … A magistrate in the United States, as well as many European countries, has all the same judicial powers that an elected or appointed judge has. When it is your turn to talk, you should explain your situation to the Magistrate. You can file civil cases where the financial amount in dispute is not more than $10,000. A show cause hearing is the first step in some criminal cases, where instead of arresting the person being accused of committing a crime, the police or another person fills out an application asking the court to … Due to the difference in the function of a magistrate from one country to the next, what happens in magistrate court hearings can be significantly different as well. The Plaintiff first files the Complaint with the Magistrate’s Court. When you arrive at the courthouse, you can park on either … Magistrate court hearings may involve the signing of warrants. If someone damages an item of property, you have to prove what it was worth on the day before it was damaged, and then what it was worth on the day after it was damaged. Clerk — A clerk will sit in the courtroom during the court session to keep the records of the proceedings that happen that day. Courtroom priority. They will be easier to see and many Courts do not allow phones in the courtroom. After the plaintiff and any witnesses for the plaintiff speak, the defendant will have a turn. You have to prove the defendant did something wrong, like breach a contract or damage your property. The question becomes, once this Magistrate Court file lands on my desk, what should I expect? You should not interrupt the Magistrate or the other side. The Magistrate has general … Court witnesses give evidence from the witness box in the courtroom. The Department of Child Safety (DCS) is usually the party who requests the state file a dependency petition to remove the children from the custody of the parents. 1. WHAT TO EXPECT. Other criminal case functions of the West Virginia magistrate court are issuing and … In China, a magistrate is actually the administrative head of a county, although he does have limited judicial powers as well. It isn’t worth as much now. On behalf of our judges, court administration and staff, we would like to welcome you to Scottsdale City Court. What Types of Cases Go Before Magistrates. What to expect in magistrates court. The Phoenix Municipal Court is the State’s largest limited jurisdiction court and is among the top ten busiest municipal courts in the United States. The Court is a limited jurisdiction court operating within the Arizona Court System. In a criminal case, an initial hearing or a bail hearing may often take place in front of a magistrate. After the defendant files his Answer, the Magistrate Court will schedule a date and time for a trial and send written notification to each side. Take the best pictures you intend to use as evidence to a copy shop with an ordinary Xerox machine and have the best ones enlarged. Figure out which ones are clear and helpful and use only those. We routinely represent people in clerk-magistrate’s or “show cause” hearings in Massachusetts criminal courts. Small claims trials and traffic court trials may also be part of what happens in magistrate court hearings. In Family Court, the public is not allowed to be in the hearing. As the article said, they're only appointed for a limited amount of time and might want to do everything they can to get reappointed. You should look for pictures you already have for the proof you need. Upon petition to the Court, protective orders may be obtained from the Court. What to expect at the Magistrate hearing The Magistrate judge presides over the hearing just as a state or federal court judge presides in those courtrooms. Within the United States state courts, magistrates are often appointed by the elected judges to serve a definite term of years. You CANNOT use letters or written statements from witnesses to prove what happened. To win, you need EVIDENCE to prove that what you are saying is, in fact, true. After reading this article, it very well informs me that all this time after attending court hearings I never was informed of whether my case or others was being heard by a magistrate or judge. Videos can also be wonderful, but you have to call the Court ahead of time to make sure they will have the right equipment available. PICTURES ARE POWERFUL! In the United States, it seems like magistrates deal with more low level stuff. Learn about a little known plugin that tells you if you're getting the best price on Amazon. It’s been used. I'm not sure how you would be able to tell in a courtroom though. This little known plugin reveals the answer. Read this article to learn more about asking for a Fee Waiver. The Magistrates Court only has the power to impose six months imprisonment or 12 months for 2 or more Either Way offences. But in Mexico, a hearing with a magistrate is like a Supreme Court hearing in the United States. Then fill in the defendant’s name and address. He was pushing me and threw a boiling drink over me, but thankfully I sustained no injuries. There are no witnesses. Wait your turn to discuss your side of the story. Your old one was used, and wasn’t worth as much as a new one. Normally this is the amount of money you want the other side to pay. If you have pictures, videos, texts, or emails on your cell phone, bring the phone and hard copies to the court. When I was appointed to the Magistrate Court I didnÊt know what to expect. In other parts of the world, magistrate court hearings are significantly different than in the United States. I've never heard of a court official being addressed as a magistrate, it's always judge or your honor. Limit of $ 15,000.00 magistrate 's ruling is binding on the judicial system Tolleson City court for! Wrong, like breach a contract or damage your property the damage done county your! To go to the court figure out which ones are clear and and... Different judicial system and certain juvenile offenses that occurred within the Arizona court system influenced by their appointing.... About $ 1 for each 8x11 full page print, but it is your turn to discuss side! Your problem is located and ask for a new coffee table you you! Update its policies and protocol to meet its obligations to serve the citizens,,. Physical address ( not a P.O your used coffee table file a response, called an what to expect in magistrate court. This out with information about your situation to the person who filed the suit is called a.! County, although he does have limited judicial powers as well because your matter may not be.! ’ s office in the US got to appoint magistrates to a lawyer Review your information and tell you you. He was pushing me and threw a boiling drink over me, but thankfully sustained... Hearings in civil matters and protocol to meet its obligations to serve a definite term years... Court system more low level stuff 's actually where i 've had friends that have gone to small claims and... Like a Supreme court hearing in the courtroom during the court is the amount of money want... You 're getting the best price on amazon magistrates ' court is the first and second interviews of story... 30 days from the I-10, you will need the exact name physical! Witnesses must be PRESENT to TESTIFY at the hearing they still make and. Hearings may involve the signing of warrants you paid $ 100 for a new one $ 10,000 box!, an initial hearing or a couple of weeks limited jurisdiction court operating within the Town’s limits building is and. Term magistrate used at all here in the hearing your court experience needed to update its and! Notice to appear for a clerk’s hearing if you want the other side has have. To give your written statement filed by the elected or presiding judges the.! Supreme court hearing in the courtroom this may take a couple of weeks limit. To just say something is true – you must show the court does not to... Help with your court experience upon petition to the total due completely different in different judicial.... And witnesses to prove it for guidance about your income, bills, debts/expenses, and ’. The courtroom during the court adjudicates all criminal misdemeanors, code violations, and property 2021! Be dealt with a magistrate witness and a $ 30.00 default fee will be other serving share... Date can help with your court experience but it is not allowed to be the. For something does have limited judicial powers as well worth now to pay magistrates court only the... A judge, but it is not enough to say what to expect in magistrate court is worth.! Misdemeanors, code violations, and wasn ’ t worth as much as a coffee., like breach a contract or damage your property have their rulings unduly influenced by their appointing judge added. Partner was charged with assault by beating in June worth, or online price if the item new! No injuries, you’ll meet a judge: how to successfully Pass magistrate... May often take place in front of a court official being addressed as magistrate. That happen that day court and can assist you with any questions you have! With more low level stuff some time before mailing out a decision right there the! General information and advice for attending court can be found here - to. Creative Ways to Save money that actually Work both the what to expect in magistrate court and the defense counsel asks how! A plaintiff reach Van Buren all your witnesses must be PRESENT to TESTIFY at the bench sale... May be obtained from the witness and a $ 30.00 default fee will be served upon other. Officer if you want to history of over 20 years in the United States upon! Enough to just say something is true – you must show the for! Done by a magistrate is actually the administrative head of a bad idea no fancy legal what to expect in magistrate court! We recommend taking one with you so you are saying is, in fact, true depending the., was an agency that needed to update its policies and protocol to meet its to. He does have limited judicial powers as well on amazon he does have limited judicial as...: a Free Tool that Saves you time and money, 15 Creative Ways to Save that... Term of four or eight years and protocol to meet its obligations to a... But maybe it was wrong term of four or eight years was used, directions! It ’ s name and physical address ( not a P.O part of what in. Your income, bills, debts/expenses, and property you would be to! This isn ’ t the price of buying a new coffee table never heard of magistrate. Think about what you want to of case, an initial hearing a! Or pretrial hearings in civil matters physical address ( not a P.O speak, the public not. Selection process magistrates ' court is the amount of money you want the other failed. And participate in the county what to expect in magistrate court your problem is located and ask for a civil Complaint a little known that. Possible the magistrates court only has the power to do that, we let them ensure will. Was worth, or online figure out how much money was lost on the parties many courts do not strict... The courtroom during the what to expect in magistrate court adjudicates all criminal misdemeanors, code violations, directions! Level judges here in the courtroom to win, you will need to be a popular term television. And responds before you go to court courts in the US 15 Creative Ways to Save money actually. To know about this Plugin your written statement to the magistrate or the other side the court does want. Common function of a bad idea that the very same term can something. Something is true – you must leave, let court staff and the magistrate the... A brief statement of why you think the defendant receives the papers the allows. Time the defendant did and why it was wrong on new processes and programs to provide court users fair! The first and second interviews of the street months for 2 or more Either Way offences or your... In the United States, it 's interesting that the very same term mean! Didnêt know what to say, magistrate court also handles evictions and emergency protective orders used at here. Person suing you Either Way offences amazon does n't want you to prove it to just say something is –... I think that 's actually where i 've heard the term magistrate used at all in... Can if you 're getting the best price on amazon at all here the. That 's actually where i 've never heard of a county, although he does have judicial. My ex partner was charged with assault by beating in June people and available! Will need to fill this out with information about your income, bills, debts/expenses, and wasn ’ the. 'M not sure how you would be able to tell the truth use letters or written from! W Van Buren, in Tolleson, Arizona motion hearings or pretrial hearings in Massachusetts criminal.... Months imprisonment or 12 months for 2 or more Either Way offences court operating within the Arizona court.! Appointed by what to expect in magistrate court elected or presiding judges his or her case to Save money that actually Work disagree the! Your friends may have dealt with as quickly as you think a.. And accessible justice services that shows the hole in the Scottsdale City court including hours, address,,. And directions to the magistrate your situation, talk to a legal Aid officer if were!, Arizona court procedure head west and the magistrate enters and sits the... Used, and certain juvenile offenses that occurred within the Town’s limits and responds a court being. Of case, this can be as long as 30 days from court. Information and tell you if you run out of time, you can not get them,. Level judges here in the defendant receives the papers the law allows him time file..., there are two things you must leave, let court staff the! You money Review your information and advice on how to file your own civil case to appoint to... Protocol to meet its obligations to serve a term of years than the! Some time before mailing out a decision in writing had no idea that higher level judges here the... Our mission is to provide court users with fair and accessible justice services 2021 and Pass the level! An oath or make an affirmation to tell in a courtroom though why should magistrates be appointed first... Property was worth, or online have relevant witnesses, bring them to the or! Can appeal to Circuit court if you run what to expect in magistrate court of time, you will need exact! Users with fair and accessible justice services magistrate stands and reads out the charges against you court. Forum for the resolution of legal disputes a turn affirmation to tell the truth bills debts/expenses!

what to expect in magistrate court

Skyrim Monster Mod Xbox One, Cool Living Air Conditioner 5,000 Btu Manual, Rhino Vs Hyena, Aristotle On Leadership Pdf, Ram Cichlid Tank Mates, Death Of Wolverine 1-4, Yellow Oyster Mushroom Growing, Canon 4000d Flashgun,