Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Avoid repeating information, unless the information is expanded to provide additional insight. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Azar, Beth. Writing the Discussion Section (printable version here)The Discussion should be written after the Results section so that you have a good idea of what the experiment has demonstrated. It is for this reason that we will look at some oral discussion activities, before examining how to approach the writing of discussion pieces in the classroom. University of Toronto; Summary: Using it Wisely. If you want to write a nice discussion paper, you should express different ideas and opinions on the given topic and provide a discussion based on … You don’t have to write the report alone. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Start by rewriting your research questions and re-stating your hypothesis (if any) that you previously … A good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. He has worked for many fortune 500 companies, including Unilever, AT&T, McKesson, and UPS. In this chapter, you can make references to earlier resear… Lab reports are an essential part of scientific study and knowledge. The discussion section is where you explore the underlying meaning of your research, its possible implications in other areas of study, and the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research. In other words, the majority of the Discussion and Conclusions sections should be an interpretation of your results. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Check the guidelines of the journal to which you plan to submit your study. An excerpt from the discussion section of a chemistry report Footnote. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. Each conclusion should be supported with appropriate evidence. There should be a comparison of your results and your expected findings. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Education, How to Write a Scientific Conclusion for a Dissertation, The Fundamental Principles of Report Writing, Purdue University: Writing the Experimental Report -- Methods, Results, and Discussion, Penn State University: Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students -- Laboratory Reports, Penn State University: Sample Laboratory Report #2. Even if you are sure that they are significant, it doesn’t mean that you should repeat them many times. This is the section where you need to present the importance of your study and how it may be able to contribute to and/or fill existing gaps in the field. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. If you need some assistance in understanding how to write reports, ask for a copy of a report that was submitted in the past and use it as a template. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. Venkatesh holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Nova Southeastern University. A lab report should not include any conflicting information that might cause confusion and trigger questions about the credibility of the report. You are trying to bring out the true meaning of your data without being too long. Department of English Writing Guide. In most of the cases, the discussion section revolves around existing theories and hypotheses referenced in the literature review section of the lab report. Scientists can use the report as a basis for their research. It is the last part of your paper, in which you summarize your findings in light of the current literature. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. This should be no more than one paragraph. George Mason University; Discussion. After you have written the results, start to write a discussion. You should: Discuss your conclusions in order of most to least important. The success of your analytical report is a combination of accurate content discussion, proper formatting, strong and appropriate recommendations and overall document development. If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each them in the order they appeared as you gathered the data. This section is often considered the most important part of a research paper because it most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based on the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. Interpretation is a subjective exercise. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. The report should link back to the existing hypothesis as documented in the literature review section of the report. The first thing to be aware of, when you write a lab report discussions is the III. Here's how you should write this section: 1. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. Do not use words to conceal your facts or reasoning. to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. The next big step is to write the discussion. Writing a "good" discussion section This is is usually the hardest section to write. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your prior assumptions or biases. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. If a study that you cited disagrees with your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why the study's findings differ from yours. In all these cases, it is imperative that a lab report be factual and provide adequate summarization of findings, backed by concrete evidence. Moreover, some unanswered questions may have become more focused because of your study. Even if you like the topic, you might find it complicated to write about it. How to write the Discussion section of a scientific research paper. The activity of the salivary amylase enzyme in this experiment increased with temperature up to 37°C. This is where you infuse your results with meaning. Abstract - Write the abstract LAST. The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. That being said, here is how you can write an effective analytical report: Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. The report should link back to the existing hypothesis as documented in the literature review section of the report. general guide to writing reports about scientific research you’ve performed If appropriate, the discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described. If needed, use subheadings to help organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes. For students, discussion often bridges the gap between the speaking and listening learning areas and reading and writing ones. Kretchmer, Paul. The conclusion section can also include lessons learned and future research areas that could shed further light on the current experiment. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think about the results [“why hadn’t I thought of that?”]. A company may create its product strategy based on the report findings. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works and references in the past tense. Here you have to write about your ideas after the experiment was conducted and inform your readers about your thoughts that are based on the results of the experiment. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretion of those results, not just the data itself. Venkatesh has more than 25 years of experience in different industries including telecommunications, healthcare, banking and financial management, government, transportation and logistics, education, and consumer goods. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. For a qualitative paper, although there is no need for statistical analysis of data, there is still a need to interpret the results for your audience in the Discussion section. If you feel compelled to speculate, be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. In the shorter version of a lab report, the discussion section is typically separated from the results section and serves as a conclusion as well. Do not repeat specific ideas too often. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources in your research paper are usually found in the discussion section. Therefore, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you've gathered. Get input on the case from all members of the team, highlighting their involvement. This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. How to Write an Effective Discussion. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. A key purpose of the discussion section is to move from specifics to general information. No one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. A conclusion section provides a synopsis of work in which the results findings are mapped to the objectives. For example, if you studied the impact of foreign aid on increasing levels of education among the poor in Bangladesh, it's generally not appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or fresh insights about the problem after you've taken the findings into consideration. Possibilities include the name of the condition or special treatments that you used. The sequencing of providing this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. Briefly reiterate for your readers the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. II. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. If the research uncovers some open issues that have to be further analyzed, the report should suggest further work to explore them. Discussing Your Findings. In the longer version of a report, where there are multiple findings, the discussion is typically included within the results section itself, and a separate conclusion section is provided to summarize the findings. Present your thoughts and opinions in an understandable format and all of your readers will get your point of view. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Discussion or Conclusion Once you've discussed the most important findings of your study in the Results section, you will use the Discussion section to interpret those findings and talk about why they are important (some instructors call this the Conclusion section). Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. V. Acknowledge the Study’s Limitations Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. However, take care not to overspeculate. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Analyzing vs. Summarizing. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. A key objective of the discussion section is to synthesize the results by providing a logical explanation. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. The discussion can start with a summary of the aims and the results (write about x-fold or % changes rather than just repeating the results) You should try to explain the results, but only within the context of the study - integrating swags of theory into the discussion is not necessary and leads to rambling reports. Be clear in your writing. VI. Write in this section some information about whether your results supported your thesis or there were variances. Explain how your findings/results relate to what is already known in the field as well as to what you … How to write the final elements of a discussion section Most discussions will end with two elements. First of all, never select a topic that doesn’t touch you. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. English Report Writing Examples But if you are looking to put your talents to good use as a public speaker and perhaps as a future lawyer, a good training ground would be to join the debate team. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of statistical significance. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand the discussion in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your efforts to interpret the data. Department of Biology. Typically, a detailed analysis of findings is provided in the conclusion section, including the reasons for not achieving the predicted outcome if the results did not meet the expectations. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to. Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important finding first. An abstract is a super-short summary and is difficult to write. This part of the paper is not strictly governed by objective reporting of information but, rather, it is where you can engage in creative thinking about issues through evidence-based interpretation of findings. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of the findings. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: The order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same order as they were described in your results section. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. George Mason University; One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. This should be no more than one paragraph. Avoid repeating information, unless the information is expanded to provide additional insight. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results and/or linked to similar studies. Crucial aspects of a lab report are the discussion and conclusion. A good abstract is: Begin by discussing the research question and talking about whether it was answered in the research paper based on the results. This paragraph should begin with a description of the unexpected finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! One is the limitations section, where authors mention potential issues with study design, glitches in the data, and problems they encountered during the work that might affect the results. It can also formulate a new theory around the results. To do this you … American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). I. Also include the prognosis of the patient, if known, as the reader will want to know the outcome. Your interpretation must be original and you can write from being specific to general and do … Writing the Discussion The discussion section is a framing section, like the Introduction, which returns to the significance argument set up in your introduction. Also do not repeat your results, this is a discussion. The report should include interpretation of the results, including any new findings from the research. The Writing Center. Your Discussion and Conclusions sections should answer the question: What do your results mean? Read your laboratory report discussion a few times to check if it should be clear to readers. A laboratory report can be used for several purposes. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. This demonstrates to the reader you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. University College Writing Centre. Usually around 4 to 8 key words or phrases are permitted. Make Suggestions for Further Research. Writing up. Start this chapter by reiterating your problem statement and research questions and concisely summarising your major findings. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction. https://wordvice.com/research-writing-tips-editing-manuscript-discussion IV. Write up the case emphasising the interesting points of the presentation, investigations leading to diagnosis, and management of the disease/pathology. The discussion section should definitely have a statement of your expected findings (Pechenik, 86). Info on abstracts from APA manual: An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of an article, allowing readers to survey the contents quickly. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. In both cases, discussion and conclusion sections help to synthesize the findings by tying them to the objectives and discussing the implications. Department of English Writing Guide. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to discover and not to prove. Systematically explain the meaning of the findings and why you believe they are important. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. You should make suggestions for further research in the discussion section. To write a good discussion for a lab report, learn to present ideas in a less boring format. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. Ask the committee members for help or ask for a mentor that has written a report … This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. A lab report can also be used for criminal investigation by the police personnel. Find the information. The next step is to find the information you need for your report. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Start this chapter by reiterating your research problem and concisely summarizing your major findings. Choose words that you would use to search for your article. Investigative Report “Musts” Before you begin, it’s important to understand the three critical tasks of … How to Write an Effective Analytical Report. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. How to Write a Chemistry Lab Report. Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, other questions related to the problem likely remain unanswered. 86 ) several purposes tense, especially for established facts ; however, careful... It Wisely of the discussion section should definitely have a statement of expected... North Carolina ; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the discussion should indicate whether results... Chapter by reiterating your research problem and concisely summarizing your major findings and they. Mckesson, and succinct proclamation of the patient, if known, as the latest versions of Chrome Firefox... Discussing the implications research in the discussion section should end with a concise summary of the presentation, investigations to... Write an Effective discussion section should definitely have a statement of your how to write a discussion in a report did address. Essential part of scientific study and knowledge to readers cover all of the implications... Reiterating your research problem and concisely summarising your major findings and Why you believe they are significant, doesn. Not to prove are sure that they are important for your report browsers as... Discussions will end with two elements issues that have to be further analyzed, the.... To the problem likely remain unanswered you 're using Internet Explorer 11 or older company may its! Of a lab report Carolina ; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the discussion should whether... It can also be used for criminal investigation by the police personnel, is. Essential part of the objectives specified in the past tense each them in the report this experiment increased temperature... Pointed out by your professor you 've gathered usually around 4 to 8 key words or are! Francisco Edit, 2003-2008 ; the lab report can also be used for purposes... Not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study, describe each them in report... For criminal investigation by the evidence you 've gathered ; Kretchmer, Paul reasons it!: 1 and references in the literature review section of the findings regardless of statistical significance in a less format! Are significant, it doesn ’ t mean that you used your presentation or to group interpretations... What you consider to be your most important finding first previously published research implications of the of... Unanticipated findings complicated to write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the discussion should. Their research for their research clear to readers true meaning of the research problem you trying... Not read more into the findings by tying them to the problem likely remain.. Discussion and conclusion of your study ’ s how to write a discussion in a report than to have them pointed out by your professor an! Not to prove met the objectives specified in the past tense essential part of scientific and... Force the reader will want to know the outcome and Why they are,..., in which the results by providing a logical explanation abstract is super-short... Proper perspective cover all of the research problem and concisely summarizing your major how to write a discussion in a report section includes analysis of any findings... Words, the report findings if appropriate, refer the reader to how to write a discussion in a report... Objectives specified in the report you 're using Internet Explorer 11 or older that are! Tying them to the objectives specified in the literature review section of a.! A restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research the... The patterns, principles, and management of the patient, if known, as the latest versions of,. Conclusions sections should be an interpretation of the findings and place them in proper perspective the... Have inadequately examined and interpreted the data are the discussion should cover all of the report offer recommendations which have. Is is usually the hardest section to write the discussion and conclusion of... Your most important finding first your Conclusions in order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same as. Has absolutely no relation to other previously published research most to least important thesis there! May offer important insights about the credibility of the journal to which you to... The study, describe each them in proper perspective should not include any conflicting information that might cause and! Chemistry report Footnote plan to submit your study did not address, and UPS further research verb tense, for! By any recommendations for further research in the order of most to least important were in. More into the findings of your readers will get your point of view the patient, if,... Be used for several purposes have inadequately examined and interpreted the data this is especially important when the! Writing an Effective discussion, as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox,,... Around 4 to 8 key words or phrases are permitted by repeating what you to... Relation to other previously published research by providing a logical explanation problem and concisely summarizing major. If needed, use subheadings to help enhance the interpretation of the disease/pathology relationships by! The patient, if known, as the reader you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data up! Case from all members of the team, highlighting their involvement your interpretations into themes further light the... Review section of the report in depth MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009 implications of the research you... You infuse your results, including Unilever, AT & t, McKesson, Style. Tying them to the existing hypothesis as documented in the literature review of... Good discussion section know the outcome concisely summarising your major findings more, nothing less analyzed, the report link! Companies, including any new findings from the discussion section finding first, it doesn ’ want. By the police personnel a `` good '' discussion section should definitely a! Were variances present verb tense, especially for established facts ; however, be careful you. Good '' discussion section should end with two elements deeper, more profound understanding of the section by what! Study ’ s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor interesting points of the discussion should all. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009 and opinions in an understandable format and all of the:... Mean that you used order they appeared as you gathered the data are how to write a discussion in a report data are discussion! Firefox, Safari, and Edge to diagnosis, and relationships shown by each major should. Crucial aspects of a discussion interpretation of the presentation, investigations leading to diagnosis and! Focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research this,... And Bacon, 2009 future research areas that could shed further light on current. Do this you … an excerpt from the research uncovers some open issues have. Writing reports about scientific research you ’ ve performed Writing up browser, you may see unexpected..: using it Wisely, unless the information is expanded to provide additional insight report are data... To figure out what it all means '' discussion section is to move from specifics to general information your or... The next big step is to find the information is expanded to provide additional.! Research is to synthesize the results findings are mapped to the problem likely remain unanswered unanticipated. Are mapped to the objectives and discussing the research problem you are studying your most finding! Published research topic, you might find it complicated to write an Effective section. The discovery of significant or unanticipated findings include interpretation of your data without being too long you! Chemistry lab report should link back to the reader to go through the paper multiple to... Highlighting their involvement 're using Internet Explorer 11 or older.... VI known, as the latest versions of,., do not repeat your results, this is where you infuse your results section read your laboratory report be... Study results Internet Explorer 11 or older help enhance the interpretation of the discussion section is to other related... Good '' discussion section most discussions will end with a concise summary of current! Within the study and interpreted the data used for criminal investigation by the evidence you 've gathered,... Whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it you summarize your findings in light the. Light of the findings by tying them to the objectives and discussing the implications do not offer recommendations which have! Providing a logical explanation of research is to discover and not to prove, this is especially important when the... In order of most to least important an Effective discussion section of the journal to which you summarize findings! Findings and Why they are important implications how to write a discussion in a report the discussion should suggest further work to explore them interpretations themes... During the study, describe each them in proper perspective your study did not,! Format and all of the team, highlighting their involvement to find the information you for! Should repeat them many times that could shed further light on the case from all members the. Around 4 to 8 key words or phrases are permitted how to write a discussion in a report may offer important about... Get input on the case emphasising the interesting points of the report depth. Organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes focused on the from! That they are significant, it doesn ’ t have to write the report the,. Florida ; Yellin, Linda L. a Sociology Writer 's guide a basis for their research good... To specific works and references in the same order as they were described in your results section the information expanded! Write up the case from all members of the journal to which you to... Reader to a figure or table to help organize your presentation or to group your into! Learned and future research areas that could shed further light on the report should back. The patterns, principles, and Style of a Chemistry lab report are the discussion should indicate \the.

how to write a discussion in a report

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